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Email: ci-enquiries curtin. Find information on what qualifications you can use to apply for a Curtin course. The offering information on this website applies only to future students. Current students should refer to faculty handbooks for current or past course information. Further on in the research, limitations and implications of the study are also gathered and evaluated in terms of the manner in which the study was conducted as well as the study itself.
The final chapter of the research study is the conclusion, where the study concludes all of the research that its gathered and conducted. The conclusion is not a repetition of the research findings or data, it simply an further analyses of the data and findings with some opinions on the research by the comparison of various findings. That concludes the dissertation research with just the references printed further on for any possible future crosschecking.
The chapter then moves onto looking at multi-cultural communication and showcases the importance of multi- cultural projects and how communication can be a major issue in multi-cultural teams.
Then in relation to multi-cultural projects, the chapter explores the effects of miscommunication in real-life projects by discussing 5 different projects around the globe. To conclude the literature the chapter presents research of how communication should be looked at and handle by drawing up research from different authors. The importance of communication processes in shaping organisational phenomena such as organizational IT implementation projects and changing individual cognition of change such that it is accepted and enacted appropriately Lewis et al, Adequate interaction, especially face-to-face is a bare minimum requirement for IT projects, especially as project team members are working with colleagues from various locations without physically seeing them.
Given this, it follows that project managers need a deep appreciation and understanding of information processes, as well as skills in the practical art of communicating. This model consists of different types of stages, which occur during communication in order to explain the reader a basic communication process. The model is shown below in fig. In terms of project management, this would be a message to conduct or complete a task.
The process works in the way that a transmitter transforms the message into an indicator, where the communication network passes that indicator to the receiver, and then the receiver converts the indicator back into a message and delivers the message to its desired destination. The one negative side to the model is that the indicator may summon other information or data in, which can cause the message to be misinterpreted, causing ineffective information to be transferred. On the other hand, Vardaan Sharma MSc Project Management Dissertation 20 Schramm complained that the Shannon-Weaver mode had failed to take into account influence of social contexts or the 'shared field of experience' in human communication.
Shannon and Weaver, also discuss that the components of the model illustrated above must be looked at intensively when considering project management. In relation to the process that the model outlines, the sender is reliable for making sure that the information sent or delivered is clear and complete, which then allows the receiver to take the information correctly and understand it in the manner it was intended to. The receiver then has the responsibility to make sure that the information they received is completely understood and is fully correct, and acknowledged.
A failure in this process will cause a negative effect or impact on the project. Galle discusses his theory, adapted here to the framework of project management, suggests that in order to arrive at the final outcome or conclusion of an IT project in terms of both delivery of a product and business value, the key processes involve both production and interpretation of ideas amongst key stakeholders, supported by appropriate artefacts, which in the case of project management are the project team members and project sponsors.
Following on, the language game or method is vital in success of a IT project, which translates to the fact that the project team members and external parties involved will distribute or deliver information in their own manner in order to make them feel confortable, which is explained by Wittgenstein, It is vital that project team members work around this and build bonds in order to have effective dialogue within the project.
Vardaan Sharma MSc Project Management Dissertation 21 games or methods, and thus not sharing their interpretations of events, nor having insights into their intentions for their dialogue. Changes in the organization are primarily its working culture and communication of data, which plays a big part in controlling the change. De Ridder, states that communication has two roles to help in bringing positive organizational change, from which the one of the roles is to convey to the employees about their roles with the organization and project, alongside any changed or upcoming polies and the second role is to produce a means of information process that brings together community, allowing information to flow from one another.
Following on, Elving draws a function model of communication in regards to organizational change to illustrate the effects about delivery of dialogue on organizational change. The model is divided into five stages, which are as follows; firstly there is the first type of communication, which is to inform and then there is the second type, which is to create a community as mentioned earlier by De Ridder, Furthermore, these two types of communication are used to settle down any uncertainty of job security, which is caused by the implementation of change.
Once the change is accepted and uncertainty over job security is settled, then the organization gets ready for the implementation of change, which in the long run leads to effective change as communication led to organizational team members avoiding any uncertainty over job security, due to change. Many studies have shown the positive effect of having multi-cultural teams, such as, Earley and Mosakowski stated that multicultural teams are used as they have the ability to out-perform monoculture teams, especially when the requirement is of multiple skills and judgement.
However, its not all well and good with multi-cultural project teams, as due to the widespread locations of the team, it can become really problematic to work effectively and efficiently due to cultural ethical working differences. The statement is supported by Rijamampianina and Carmichael, who research about a human resource management firm in South Africa, stating how the organisation did not take into account cultural differences, which meant that employees in the organisation had various ways of working.
In relations to the above, due to globalisation, many projects around the world are now being dealt through technology rather than physically. Globalisation has led to projects being conducted internationally with various kinds of people and due to that, IT projects are flourishing. In regards to IT projects, many firms are saving on costs such as traveling and physically meeting, however, IT projects have had various issues in the recent years.
The major issues those have occurred in IT projects, especially overseas IT projects are uncertainty, unknown identity and interdependence as talked about by Lewis, , which translates to members having indecisions, allowing them to not distribute efficient information as they are unsure about their work, leading to incorrect decisions being made. These issues have come into play due to the failure of integrating effective flow of knowledge within these projects. Vardaan Sharma MSc Project Management Dissertation 23 Furthermore, the geographical location of multi-cultural project teams, posses its very own challenges in regards to delivery of information and data.
Emmitt and Gorse has studied that many communicational issues have been resolved from multi-cultural project teams, such as telecommunications where the usage of email and Skype allows project teams to communicate with one another from various parts of the world, however some communicational issues such as direct delivery of speech and signals remain unresolved. This consequently will lead to major implications in achieving mutual trust and confidence within multicultural project teams, it can also become extremely difficult to manage or even supervise multicultural project teams without face-to-face contact.
This then hinders chances of building client relationships, which then affect the project as whole in a negative way. As Earley and Mosakowski mention earlier that project teams have a working culture, they discuss how distribution of information is used to build that culture. The stimulation of effective information and data encourages a strong working culture in a project, although individuals have various different perceptions of ways of communicating and this can cause conflicts in the long run. Following on, Hass In relation to the above, James et al, discusses how construction firms tend to less communication methods within their hierarchy systems.
Meaning that many construction companies, especially in the UK prefer or have a high level of face-to- face communication. The reason being that, due to the high levels of risk in construction projects, face-to-face communication narrows down the chance of it leading to misinterpretation of dialogue, which could lead to catastrophe within construction projects. Hass, 2. The scope of the project was very poorly delivered within the project team members even though the business plan and structure was designed to a very good level.
The failure of the projects leads to failure of information distribution within the co- members. The project owners in this case were very reluctant to discuss further objectives and aims of the project with the co-members, as they feared for loss of control of the project. Hence, the high power distance is very much a cultural factor Vardaan Sharma MSc Project Management Dissertation 25 in the African culture, which has caused poor levels of delivery within the project and leads it to be poorly handled. The firm then due to this experienced some negative results as the company had 41 equity investments, out of which 12 went into liquidation.
This occurred as there was overload of work that the owners had taken on and not delegated it around the firm, which led to the work being over due and causing this negative effect. In one of the projects that the firm carried out, had particularly major implications due to transferring of data, as the project was done globally, which involved team members from around the globe. The three reasons were, that there was difference in language between systems and business, which led to a difference in perception and due to that their was a lot of misunderstanding of tasks during the project.
The statement relates with the above project, as the project should have integrated all the tasks with effective interaction, which would have allowed the project to be performed much better. The project itself had workers from various parts of China and as the hotel was preparing to welcome customers from various parts of the world, its project managers were liaising with other hotels around the globe to build a partnership. This led to the company entering alliances those do not suit their interest. The firm then ended all ties with firms it was liaising with that had to profit towards this project, which ended up costing the organisation much more than anticipated and led to the project being well over budget.
However, Pheng, L. Liaising with Vardaan Sharma MSc Project Management Dissertation 28 their Chinese partners would help the hotel execute their project and build the hotel that will be suitable for all foreign customers. In the Arab world, you must converse with Arab clients in some Arabic language to gain their trust, only then you can work well with them. The opportunity arose for UK construction firms to seek out projects in the gulf of Persia, as this was a growing market with major opportunities to exploit. The main reasons for those project encountering trouble was issues with inter-cultural collaboration, as the Arabic clients have certain ways of working, this caused many tasks in the projects to be delayed.
Limaye and Victor researched about Arabic culture and explain how there are certain factors that need to be considered when doing business with them, such as very less eye- contact, not shouting and have a very family orientated atmosphere within the team. The projects in the end had been delayed due to the flow of information being slow and late.
Search for dissertations about: "thesis topic in construction management"
This then caused a lot of objectives to be held back as there were some conflicts within the projects teams from the UK and the Persian Gulf, while delivering The projects were completed, however, due to co-operation issues, some UK firms had withdrawn businesses from the Persian clients, reducing the amount of foreign projects in Persia, which has led the nation to conduct its very own domestic projects and work with Arabic firms.
The trust factor will allow the project members to interact in the same way as the culture tells them to depending on which type of client they are dealing with. In the organisation won the chance to deliver this project and decided to use the matrix approach to conduct this project and in the proposal stage of the project, the project manager decided to hold a meeting, which will look to satisfy customer requirements and delegate tasks to each management member to shift the project from the proposal stage to the planning and execution stage successfully.
The project was already half completed and so far it was a great success, with all the aims and objectives being met and also the budget being controlled. In the latter stages of the project, the current project manager had to leave the project due to personal circumstances, which mean that a new project manager was assigned.
The Vardaan Sharma MSc Project Management Dissertation 30 team was still working at a good pace and effectively, however, the new project manager liked to work at his own pace and during a meeting, the project sponsor had asked the project manager for the project report and the project manager had failed to produce it.
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Therefore, this would lead to many conflicts and misunderstanding between the project sponsor and manager in the latter stages of project. Furthermore, meetings were cancelled in the project as due to laid back attitude of the new project manager and this led to project staff not interconnecting enough with their project manager and as the project was going from the controlling stage to the closing stage, this would cause many implication.
Kerzner, H then states how the project went into the closing stage and all tasks those were nearing completion, still had much work left to do and due to less co-ordination between project team members, more and more work was being delayed. Kerzner, H mentions how the new project manager failed to even interconnect with its staff through emails, which in the end led to the project culture being very conservative and leading the project to be a failure.
The author discusses how there are various Vardaan Sharma MSc Project Management Dissertation 31 communication issues and to name them all would be impossible, therefore here outlines some of the major ones that do have an adverse impact on a project. Different stakeholder will have various methods of working and engagement level in the project. Subsequently, project teams need to consider different ways and forms of co-operating, which will be effective on different stakeholders.
Hence, a project that solely plans on interacting with its team through blogs or emails may not be acceptable in other working cultures, which will in the long-run lead to issues arising and affecting the project in a large-scale manner. During the start of the project, what was said may not be implemented in the correct manner as aims and objectives may have been altered. In regards to this, if there is no feedback mechanism and flow of information is similar to how it was at the start of the project, then not enough or efficient flow of information will be passed around in the project for it to be a success.
Following on, Cervone, talks about two strategies, which can be implemented in order to have effective collaboration in a project. The first strategy it states is to have engagement of all stakeholders throughout the project; in this manner every stakeholder is being informed throughout the project as well as engaging in the project. This is the long-run helps build a communication loop, which is a pathway for the feedback mechanism mentioned earlier in the thesis and allows the project The second strategy Cervone, explores is to have less passive communication, which correlates to emails and podcasts.
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Cervone, states that passive communication can allow less engagement for stakeholders in a project, which leads to the lack of concentration. However, face-to-face communication, telephones, video conferences or even presentation will allow stakeholders to engage more in a project and eventually producing their best work for the welfare of the project. This aids the project teams to immediately respond to change and successful projects are usually those, which respond to change.
This type of interaction also helps build a strong team culture in a project Wellman The framework is illustrated below: Fig. This type of delivery sets a system in the project, which enables the team member and project managers to adapt to unseen change; those can hinder the project as cultural communication moulds the surroundings into the system.
This system is about exchanges experiences, bringing innovation into the project and learning from outcomes. Here the role of communication is to remain effective through stability and change, therefore, promoting innovation, dynamism and creativity in the project. Beginning from the issues of delivery of information to the interaction with overseas clients, all issues relate to communication, which is a huge factor in project success and failure. Vardaan Sharma MSc Project Management Dissertation 34 , where due to ineffective interaction between two parties, the project in the end was unsuccessful.
Similarly, this issue also caused the AEI Project to be very unstable and ineffective as Kerzner, H explained how not enough face-to-face interconnection occurred in the project, which meant many meetings and plans were cancelled, leading the project to be unsuccessful. The study tries to explain this by listing various reasons as to why communication leads to so many issued within project management. The research study compiles together many descriptions by authors such as Earley and Mosakowski who talk about cultural issues being the main cause of problems in projects from communication, as projects now contain members that have different working styles and how that can cause conflicts as it builds form anxiety from not being able to demonstrate something to one another.
Furthermore, the study mentions how communication issues can be caused by something as simple as the lack of face-to- face communication stated by Emmitt and Gorse The author also mentions in the research that due to the lack of face-to-face interaction, the stimulation of a project weakens, causing it to be ineffective, as many project staff will not have to motivation to work. The research has a huge a part in illustrating the means of information and interaction by discussing communication theories. Vardaan Sharma MSc Project Management Dissertation 35 Ultimately, the goal of the study is explain to the issues of communication, especially in multi-cultural projects as all projects in the future will be multi-cultural and the importance of the discussion is that communication comes in various forms and as there will be plenty of communicating in multi-cultural projects, future projects need to be aware of the negative effects that communication have on them.
Also to deliver an explanation of the methods used during the progression of this study and samples from which data was gathered. This has a significant impact on not just what we do but also how we do it and whether we understand the study being investigated. The reasoning behind conducting this particular philosophy is because the study required qualitative data and in depth investigations of case studies those have already been written about the research topic.
The content research analyses looks at consumer behaviour, which involves printing materials and more importantly verbal and non-verbal communications. Furthermore, the prime research method is the qualitative method, which will is used throughout the study. According to this philosophical approach research give importance to their beliefs and value to give sufficient explanation for a research problem Cooper, Through the help of this philosophical, researchers focus to highlight the real facts and figures according to the research problem.
This kind of philosophical approach understand specific business situation. In this approach, researchers use slight sampling and evaluate them in detail to understand the views of large people Kasi In order to achieve this particular research, the approach taken from Saunders, A is an inductive approach.
This allows the research to gradually build overtime; it gives the researcher and the reader a close context of the research and it allows a structure to be built to permit changes of the research, as the research progresses. As research illustrates that the study is going on the Interpretivism route, which requires the study to go down the inductive pathway. Fig 1. In grounded theory, data collection is begun without a framework; observing a series of data generates theory.
Furthermore, various coding methods are required to conduct a grounded theory and in this study, there are two types of coding methods chosen, which is open coding and selective coding as mentioned earlier in the research philosophy section. Strauss and Corbin illustrate the process of open coding as breaking down, comparing, examining and categorizing collected data. In this case the study has observed two major organizations in different parts of the world, in order to make a comparative analyses.
The discussions were about the researched topic of communication and how much of an influence it has on the projects that are conducted within the firm.
The discussions in this firm were also with various project team members from various department on how influential and important communication is, when carrying out international projects. The study will look at the difference between the communication influence and importance between these two firms, in order to evaluate the research topic of communication in finding out its importance in project management in practice. The study will interview 9 project managers from the two firms combined, and it will ask them questions from a questionnaire built to gain relevant data for this study via research.
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The questionnaire will be attached on to the appendix, as well as the transcript of the interview, with an addition of confirmation letters from the both firms confirming that the interviews have taken place and that the permission has been granted to take the interviews. However, due to confidentiality issues, not many projects could be researched, which allowed the research to study three different international projects from the time span of , giving the study a general idea of communication issues that occur in various projects around the world.
Yin, R. Many researchers over the years have used the case study methodology, however, due to this study containing only three cases, researchers also believe that such a small amount of research is invalid to provide any form of conclusion. Hence, the study mentions that only a slight bit of case study methodology was adopted to give only a general insight about construction projects and their issues with communication.
This gives the study a range of insight into the research question, especially as it allows the study to build an argument and a comparative analysis to draw upon a conclusion. The way in which Hesse-Biber, S. All of these methods lead to the results being interlinked with one another to form a dissertation research. Hesse- Biber, illustrates in fig 1. As the researched is based on communication and project management, various journals on these two topics have been researched throughout this study and the intent is to only use journals based solely on these two topics.
Including the journal of project management, the IPMA has been used in this research eleven times, and those journals used have been from a time span from This particular association published any journals, which talk about the project management practises that are happening around the world, various projects, further research into new practises and it even has a forum from which project managers from around the globe can discuss and share their skills. Business source premier is an online library service provided to students from many universities.
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The one used in this study is from The Manchester Metropolitan University, which is one of the largest universities in the UK in terms of students and campus size. Also, business source premier provided from the university has numerous numbers of journals to search from in any particular topic and the search engine in business source premier allows the searcher to refine its search, so any journal on any specific topic can be retrieved. This outlines that the research conducted in this study from these journals is reliable and critical in analysing any topic in relation to project management.
Moving on to business source premier, this system as been embedded in many universities across the UK and is used by thousands of students everyday. Altogether, the research tries to gain as many journals as possible to make the study as strong as possible, nevertheless, due to the time frame in which this study has to completed, its not possible to analyse every single project management or even communication journal.
Saunders, says that cross-sectional study is a study on a particular phenomenon and most academic courses undertake these study. Cross-sectional studies usually employ survey strategies as well as interviews and also may employ qualitative methodology. This particular study has taken the qualitative methodology, as well as conducting interviews as mentioned earlier, however, the study has also analysed a few case studies, which means that study also contains some form of longitudinal study. Vardaan Sharma MSc Project Management Dissertation 45 reason being because analysing case studies, those have been researched over an extensive period of time can also constitute of being a longitudinal method Saunders, A.
The chapter then draws out coding for articles chosen to input information in the research, then a model of communication shows expresses each topic used to get to the final research question, in order to try and answer it. The chapter then moves onto discussing about the interviews conducted, presents the data from the interviews and then finally draws to a close by displaying the data collection methods to demonstrate which type of method was used and why.
The purpose of open coding is to begin from raw data and break that data down into various segments, in order to interpret them. The data that is broken down will form a basic unit for the research, which will create a phenomenon for the study. There are three ways of conducting the open coding analysis, which are line-by-line analysis, sentence or paragraph analysis and perusing a whole document for data analysis Strauss and Corbin, The method implemented in this dissertation study for open coding is paragraph analysis, to try and locate any well-used term in relation to communication in project management.
The purpose of selective coding is to figure out the core variable that includes all of the data.